HMS L5

HMS L5 was a L-class submarine built for the Royal Navy during World War I. The boat survived the war and was sold for scrap in 1931.

The L-class boats were enlarged and improved versions of the preceding E class. The submarine had a length of 231 feet 1 inch (70.4 m) overall, a beam of 23 feet 6 inches (7.2 m) and a mean draft of 13 feet 3 inches (4.0 m). They displaced 891 long tons (905 t) on the surface and 1,074 long tons (1,091 t) submerged. The L-class submarines had a crew of 35 officers and ratings.

For surface running, the boats were powered by two 12-cylinder Vickers 1,200-brake-horsepower (895 kW) diesel engines, each driving one propeller shaft. When submerged each propeller was driven by a 600-horsepower (447 kW) electric motor. They could reach 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph) on the surface and 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h; 12.1 mph) underwater. On the surface, the L class had a range of 3,200 nautical miles (5,900 km; 3,700 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).

The boats were armed with a total of six 18-inch (45 cm) torpedo tubes. Four of these were in the bow and the remaining pair in broadside mounts. They carried 10 reload torpedoes, all for the bow tubes. They were also armed with a 4-inch (102 mm) deck gun.

HMS L5 was laid down on 23 August 1916 by Swan Hunter at their Wallsend shipyard, launched on 1 September 1917, and completed on 15 May 1918. She was based at Falmouth, Cornwall in 1918. She served on the China Station with other vessels of this class in the 1920s. On 20 October 1927 off Hong Kong, L5 and HMS L4 rescued the crew of the merchant ship SS Irene from a pirate attack after firing her deck gun. HMS L5 was sold in 1931 and broken up in Charlestown, Fife.

Tommy Watt

Tommy Watt (31 October 1925, Glasgow – 20 May 2006, Bristol, England) was a Scottish jazz bandleader.

Watt was hired as a pianist by Carl Barriteau at age 17, and served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. He moved to London following the war, where he played with Ambrose, Harry Roy, and Ken Mackintosh. He teamed up with actor Brian Rix, whom he had met during the war, in 1955 to record a demo, which eventually led to a contract with the BBC. After making appearances behind Matt Monro, Watt was hired by Parlophone for session and arranging work. In 1956 Watt put together his first big band, which played at Quaglino’s, a London restaurant. Among his sidemen were Tubby Hayes, Ronnie Ross, Jackie Armstrong, Tommy McQuater, Bert Courtley, and Phil Seaman.

Watt became one of the better-known British bandleaders of the 1950s, winning an Ivor Novello Award for the song „Overdrive“ and releasing their first LP record in 1958. Watt’s arrangements of Count Basie songs so impressed Basie himself that he incorporated some of Watt’s changes into his own performances. After disbanding his ensemble, Watt worked with Rix on stage shows and films, including the 1961 movies The Night We Got the Bird and Nothing Barred. He led the BBC Northern Dance Orchestra and the BBC Big Band briefly in the early 1960s, but squabbles with management quickly ended this contract. In 1964 he assembled the Centre 42 Big Band, and through the end of the decade wrote for television and directed singers Tommy Cooper and Freddie Starr.

In 1970 Watt put together a new group to perform at the Dorchester Hotel in London, but was dissatisfied with the gig and disbanded the orchestra soon after. He left music, aside from occasional piano performances, and became an interior decorator.

Watt was married to journalist Romany Bain from 1962 until his death in 2006. Their son Ben Watt became famous in his own right as a member of Everything but the Girl.

Черносвитовы

Описание герба: см. текст >>>

VIII, 70

За верность и ревность

VI

Тульская, Ярославская, Сибирская

Старинный служилый дворянский (боярские дети) российский род.
Участвовал в нескольких вооружённых конфликтах, подавлении Пугачёвского бунта. Исконно имел земли в Тульской губернии.

Первый, на данный момент, документально подтверждённый Черносвитов — Михаил Петрович, дворянин из боярских детей, участник защиты крепости Дедиславля от крымских татар.

Из боярских детей, состоял в передовом полке князя А. И. Голицина и М. С. Туренина. В 1588 году полк разместился в старинном городе Дедиславле.
Согласно Дедиславским спискам от 1588 года, состоял в составе осадных людей крепости Дедиславля и имел своё дворовое место внутри крепости. Но, как говорится в документе, так никакого дома в крепости и не построил. По документам из Тульского областного архива, купил земли в районе деревни Алексинцева (Соловской уезд, Карницкий стан), в зоне находящейся под защитой крепости от набегов. Имел трёх сыновей Василия, Федора и Саввелия (Рожд. 1627 год.), проживал далее в д. Татаринкова (Соловской уезд, Карницкий стан).

Ядро семьи Черносвитовых происходят из деревни Татаринки, село Карники, ныне Тульской области.

Породнились с семьями Пушкиных, Волконских, Зейфарт.

Щит разделён перпендикулярно на две части, в правой в чёрном поле между тремя серебряными звёздами находится золотое стропило, с означенными на нём тремя горящими гранадами. В левой части в красном поле посредине щита горизонтально изображена золотая городская стена с пятью зубцами и три серебряные штыка, остриём вниз означенные, один у подошвы щита и два вверху.

Щит увенчан дворянским шлемом, на котором наложена Лейб-Компании Гренадерская шапка со страусовыми перьями красного и белого цвета, и по сторонам этой шапки видны два чёрные орлиные крыла с тремя на каждом серебряными звёздами. Намёт на щите красного и чёрного цвета, подложен серебром и золотом. Герб рода Черносвитовых внесён в Часть 8 Общего гербовника дворянских родов Всероссийской империи, стр. 70

Известный родоначальник — Черносвитов Михаил Петрович, дворянин, отмечен в 1588 году. Служил в осадных людях города-крепости Дедиславля. Позднее владел землей в Соловском уезде, Карницкого стана, деревни Алексинцева. (Смотрите «Происхождение рода»)

Происходит из Тульской.

Родоначальник — Черносвитов Григорий Фадеевич, Поручик Лейб-Гвардии Преображенского полка, пожалован 25.11.1751 года землями в Ярославской губернии и дворянством (повторно). Рожден в д. Алексинцева в 1709 году. Его сын — Черносвитов Феофилакт (Филат) Григорьевич (род. 1739 г.), премьер-майор артиллерии, упоминается Пушкиным А. С. в «Записках о бунте». Участник осады под Оренбургом.

Самая молодая ветвь, происходит из Ярославской. Сейчас выяснилось, что третьей ветви не существует. Сын Рафаила Александровича вел кочевой образ жизни. Его дети интегрировались в ярославскую ветвь.

Родоначальник — Черносвитов Рафаил Александрович (1810—1868 г.г), изобретатель и золотопромышленник. Попал в ссылку в Кексгольмскую крепость, по делу «Петрашевцев», освобождён в декабре 1854 года. В 1857-58 гг. переехал жить в Сибирь, где до этого провёл практически полжизни.

Рафаил Александрович упоминается у , как одноногий купец из Сибири, поскольку они были близко знакомы и, впоследствии, проходили по делу «петрашевцев» вместе.

Изобрёл управляемый аэростат (дирижабль), протез ноги (был одноног после ранения в войне с поляками), уникальный паровой двигатель и многое другое. Его труды использовал Александр Федорович Можайский:

«Вот ещё один пример действия летательного аппарата тяжелее воздуха», — думал Можайский и, отложив в сторону описания устройств различных аэростатов, углублялся в малоизвестные исследования инженера Черносвитова. Этот человек, мечтавший отыскать с помощью аэростатов одну пропавшую экспедицию, произвёл много серьёзных опытов. С наибольшим интересом Можайский изучал как раз результаты тех исследований, которые Черносвитов вёл с крыльями и парусами, заставляя «площади» в сто и более квадратных футов пробегать пространство со скоростью в пятьдесят и более футов в секунду. Инженер Черносвитов, который приступил к своим трудам ещё в 1850 году, сообщал, что эти «площади» приводились в движение с помощью вращавшихся воздушных винтов. Быстро двигаясь под углом к горизонту, «площади» стремились подняться вверх. Интересно было и то, что лопасти винтов имели в сечении вид наклонной плоскости.

Много статей опубликовано в «Морском вестнике».

Черносвитов Григорий Фадеевич (род. 1709) (ТВ) — поручик Лейб-Гвардии Преображенского полка, участник переворота, приведшего к власти императрицу Елизавету Петровну.

Черносвитов Феофилакт Григорьевич (род. 1739) (ЯВ) — премьер-майор, участник взятия Татищевой крепости во время «Пугачевского бунта»

Черносвитов Рафаил Александрович (1810—1868) (ЯВ-СВ) — поручик в отставке, купец, золотопромышленник, изобретатель дирижабля, протеза ноги. Ссыльный по делу «петрашевцев» в Кексгольмской крепости, месте ссылки семьи Емельяна Пугачева. Основоположник сибирской ветви (СВ) рода Черносвитовых. Автор Айгунского трактата.

Черносвитов Кирилл Кириллович (06.02.1866—23.09.1919 расстрелян) (ЯВ) — депутат 4-х Государственных дум, активный участник сопротивления большевикам.

Черносвитов Александр Михайлович (08.02.1857—24.07.1919 расстрелян) (ЯВ) — депутат 4-й Государственной думы, масон, Предводитель дворянства в Пошехонском уезде.

Черносвитов Николай Петрович (19.11.1848—08.05.1908) (ТВ) — известный тульский юрист, правитель канцелярии Тульского губернатора, Коллежский секретарь Уездного Земского Собрания, депутат дворянства Веневского уезда, дядя А. С. Пушкина (был мужем Пушкиной Александры Ивановны), владелец сахарного завода и имения «Щучье» под г. Веневым. Отец Софьи Смидович, известной революционерки.

(08.03.1872—26.11.1934) (ТВ) — революционерка, большевичка, бывшая жена Луначарского Платона Васильевича, известного киевского врача, родного брата Луначарского А. В., жена Смидовича Петра Гермогеновича — председателя Президиума Московского Совета рабочих и красноармейских депутатов (март — октябрь 1918).

Черносвитов Василий Петрович (1908—1990, г. Хабаровск) — лётчик, участник Второй Мировой войны, воевал в Испании, открыл многие лётные трассы на Дальнем востоке и Севере — на Шпицберген, Курилы, в Аяно-Майском районе[источник не указан 1674 дня].

Черносвитов Павел Юрьевич (родился 25.02.1944 г. в г. Москве.) — Место работы: Институт археологии РАН. Старший научный сотрудник, кандидат исторических наук. В 1967 г. закончил Московский авиационный институт. Работает в Институте археологии РАН с 1975 г. Археологические экспедиции: с 1975 по 1991 г. (Нижнее Поволжье, Ставрополье, Казахстан, Горный Алтай, Западная Сибирь, Шпицберген). 1991 г. — зам. начальника международной экспедиции Беринг-91. Автор 70 научных работ.

Черносвитов Александр Александрович (ТВ) — историк, директор Фонда имени А. С. Пушкина в Мадриде.

Черносвитов Александр Анатольевич (ТВ) (родился 23 октября 1944 г. в Туле)  — юрист, бывший прокурор города Рязани, участник нашумевших расследований в Узбекистане в 80-х годах, сейчас в отставке, серьезно занимается генеалогией рода Черносвитовых.

Черносвитов Евгений Васильевич (родился 10.09 1945 в г. Хабаровске) — доктор философских и медицинских наук, академик и вице-президент Международной академии науки, искусства, культуры и образования — живёт и работает в Москве.

Черносвитов Дмитрий Олегович (ТВ)(родился 06.03.1971 г. в г. Москве.) — путешественник, бывший президент „Московской федерации хапкидо с 2010 года, мастер боевых искусств, основоположник техник Пунрю Ханмуе и одноименной школы, ученик буддийского монаха и учитель корейской Дзен Йоги. Автор книги  — 2009 год..

Cannonball Adderley Quintet in Chicago

Cannonball Adderley Quintet in Chicago (later released as Cannonball & Coltrane in 1964, on Limelight) is an album by jazz saxophonist Cannonball Adderley, his final release on the Mercury label, featuring performances by Adderley with John Coltrane, Wynton Kelly, Paul Chambers and Jimmy Cobb.

With Bill Evans substituting for Wynton Kelly on most tracks, these musicians would record the classic album Kind of Blue (1959), with regular employer Miles Davis, shortly after this session.

The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow awarded the album 4½ stars and states „Altoist Cannonball Adderley and tenor saxophonist John Coltrane really push each other on these six selections… Coltrane’s very serious sound is a striking contrast to the jubilant Adderley alto… With pianist Wynton Kelly, bassist Paul Chambers and drummer Jimmy Cobb playing up to their usual level, this gem is highly recommended“. The Penguin Guide to Jazz awarded the album 3 stars asserting: „The session with Coltrane is really the Miles Davis band without Miles and it’s a bit of good fun, both hornmen flexing their muscles on the blues and a ballad feature apiece“.

Die drei dunklen Könige

Die drei dunklen Könige ist eine Kurzgeschichte des deutschen Schriftstellers Wolfgang Borchert. Sie entstand im Jahr 1946 und wurde erstmals am 24. Dezember desselben Jahres in der Hamburger Freien Presse veröffentlicht. Borchert nahm sie in seine zweite Prosasammlung An diesem Dienstag auf, die im November 1947 erschien, im selben Monat, in dem der Autor mit 26 Jahren starb.

Die Kurzgeschichte überträgt Motive der Weihnachtsgeschichte in die Nachkriegszeit. In den Trümmern einer Stadt nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wird an einem kalten Weihnachtsabend ein Kind geboren. Drei vorbeikommende Kriegsheimkehrer beschenken die Familie wie die Heiligen Drei Könige. Das Neugeborene wird für sie wie für die Eltern zum Hoffnungsträger in einer hoffnungslos erscheinenden Zeit. Die Kurzgeschichte ist ein typisches Beispiel der so genannten Trümmerliteratur und wird oft an Schulen im Deutschunterricht behandelt.

In den Trümmern einer durch Bombenangriffe des Zweiten Weltkriegs zerstörten Stadt sucht ein Mann nach Holz. Er kehrt zurück zu seiner Frau, die vor einer Stunde ein Kind geboren hat. Während die Mutter erleichtert ist, dass ihr Kind lebt, und das schlafende Neugeborene im Schein des Holzofens von einem Heiligenschein umgeben sieht, ist der Vater von tiefem Zorn über die Kälte und die elenden Umstände erfüllt, unter denen die Geburt stattfinden musste. Vergeblich sucht er nach jemandem, den er dafür verantwortlich machen und an dem er seine Wut auslassen kann.

Drei Männer in alten Soldatenuniformen werden vom Feuerschein angelockt und treten ins Haus, um sich aufzuwärmen. Der erste Soldat hat nur noch Armstümpfe, weil ihm seine Arme erfroren sind. Er schenkt dem Vater Tabak. Der zweite Soldat hat Ödeme an den bandagierten Füßen. Er schenkt dem Kind einen Esel aus Holz, an dem er sieben Monate geschnitzt hat. Der dritte Soldat hat ein Nervenleiden und zittert ununterbrochen. Er habe im Krieg zu viel Angst gehabt, erklären seine Kameraden. Er schenkt der Mutter zwei Bonbons.

Als sich die drei Soldaten über das Kind beugen, schreit es aus Leibeskräften. Daraufhin gehen sie wieder. Der Mann sinniert, sie wären sonderbare Heilige gewesen, doch die Frau verweist auf das Kind, das jetzt ganz lebendig sei, so schreie es. Sie erinnert daran, dass Weihnachten sei. Am Ende wird das schlafende Kind vom Feuerschein erleuchtet.

Kåre Eirek Gullvåg nannte Die drei dunklen Könige eine „wahre“ Kurzgeschichte mit einem Umfang von kaum 700 Wörtern. Auch die einzelnen Sätze sind kurz, die Sprache schlicht: Subjekt, Prädikat und einfache adverbiale Bestimmungen. Nebensätze und Adjektive werden spärlich eingesetzt. Die Substantive stehen in den Grundformen, werden kaum einmal zu Komposita zusammengezogen. Der Stil kommt ohne Ornamente und Verzierungen aus, die Sätze werden parataktisch gereiht. Kennzeichnend für die Parataxe sind häufige Satzanschlüsse mit „da“ oder „dann“, sowie der an den Satzanfang gestellte Artikel. Albrecht Weber sah die Sprache der Geschichte zerlegt in ihre Grundbestandteile. Strukturell sei Die drei dunklen Könige gebaut wie ein Drama in drei Akten, wobei der mittlere Akt, der Auftritt der drei Dunklen, wiederum in drei Szenen mit der Übergabe der jeweiligen Geschenke gegliedert sei. In der Mitte der Geschichte befinde sich das Geschenk für das Kind, der Esel aus Holz, der für Geduld stehe, sowohl symbolisch als auch im Prozess seiner Entstehung.

Die Figuren der Geschichte sind Typen ohne Namen und Individualität. Sie reden Alltagssprache, bleiben auf ihre Funktion reduziert und könnten Jedermann sein. Das Kind wird nur über sein stets durch Adjektive begleitetes „Gesicht“ angesprochen, seine Reaktionen bleiben beschränkt auf Schlafen und Schreien. Dagegen werden die Dinge personifiziert: das Pflaster erschrickt, die Planke seufzt, die Tür weint. Nacheinander treten Mann, Frau und Kind auf, wird die Familie in die Geschichte eingeführt. Insbesondere im ersten Abschnitt bleiben die beschriebenen Handlungen isoliert, unterstreichen durch ihre Zerstückelung die Trümmerlandschaft der Stadt. Den Handlungsablauf muss sich der Leser selbst erst zusammenfügen. Immer wieder werden Gegensätze gesetzt: das Dunkel und die Kälte der nächtlichen Stadt gegen die Helligkeit und Wärme des Feuers, das Weinen der Tür gegen das Lachen des Mannes, die zerstörten Häuser gegen das Gesicht des Kindes, das „schon alles“ hat, „was dazugehört“. Auffällig ist der häufige Gebrauch von Hilfsverben, doch „sein“ und „haben“ stehen in der Nachkriegszeit für mehr als bloß für ihre grammatische Funktion. Der hoffnungslosen Situation begegnen die Figuren mit ihrem Lebenswillen, der im Text seinen Widerklang im wiederholten „Aber“ findet.

Nach Albrecht Weber entwerfe bereits der erste Satz eine Situation: „Er tappte durch die dunkle Vorstadt.“ Die graue Vorstadt werde in der dunklen Nacht zum doppelten Zeichen von Tristesse und Trostlosigkeit. Ihre Zerstörung spiegele sich in den Reaktionen der Gegenstände, die seufzen und weinen. Sie fühlen den Schmerz stärker als die Menschen, die für die Zerstörung verantwortlich zeichnen. Selbst der Mond und die Sterne, auf deren Abwesenheit hingewiesen werde, symbolisieren Entbehrung. Der Mann, der in dieser Situation durch die Trümmer steige, sei verbittert. Er suche nach einem Gegner, den er für seine Not verantwortlich machen könne. „Aber er hatte keinen, dem er dafür die Fäuste ins Gesicht schlagen konnte.“ Es bleibe ihm nur, seinen Kampf auf das Überleben zu richten. Während er durch das eingesammelte Holz die Existenz sichere, warte die Frau in einer klassischen Rollenverteilung auf seine Rückkehr und behüte das Kind. Im Gegensatz zu ihrem Mann besitze sie ein feines Gespür für das entstandene Leben, erkenne schon früh dessen höheren Sinn, indem sie einen Heiligenschein um den Kopf des Neugeborenen wahrnehme.

Das Kind werde zur Hoffnung, angedeutet durch das Licht, in dem es liege. Die „drei Dunklen“ dagegen kommen aus der Nacht. In ihrem Streben zum Licht lassen sie sich vom Vater nicht abwehren. Doch sie haben keine Entschuldigung dafür, in das Zimmer einzudringen, und schweigen. Die Geschenke, mit denen sie sich für die Gastfreundschaft bedanken, erhalten ihren besonderen Wert nicht durch ihre materielle Kostbarkeit, sondern dadurch, dass sie für die Schenkenden Opfer seien. Dabei habe der Esel, das Geschenk des Kindes, den höchsten ideellen Wert. Während seiner Entstehung seien glückliche und verzweifelte Stimmungen von Monaten verarbeitet worden. Nun werde er eingetauscht für einen kurzen Moment im Licht und die Hoffnung, die das Kind ausstrahle. Die Begegnung mit den drei Dunklen lasse die Eltern beschenkt zurück, nicht bloß materiell, sondern indem sie den ideellen Reichtum begreifen, den sie aneinander und an ihrem Kind trotz aller materiellen Not haben. Der Zorn des Mannes vergehe, und ihm werde das Heilige der Begegnung offenbar: erst nenne er die drei Dunklen „Sonderbare Heilige“, dann „Schöne Heilige“. Die Frau ziehe die Verbindung zur Weihnacht. Die Kälte und die Hoffnungslosigkeit seien überwunden, die Familie habe zum Glauben und zur Geborgenheit gefunden.

Wilhelm Große sah im Heiligenschein, den die Mutter im Licht um ihr Kind erkenne, den ersten Höhe- und Umschlagpunkt der Geschichte. Hier werde erstmals das Motiv der Geburt zu Betlehem offenbar, in dem Mutter und Vater zu Maria und Josef werden, das Kind zum Erlöser, der eine dem Tod geweihte Welt rette. Dabei seien der Tod und die Erlösung in der Geschichte symbolisiert durch die Gegensätze von Dunkel und Hell. Ganz unköniglich und vom Krieg gezeichnet treten die Heiligen Drei Könige auf, die dem Licht gefolgt seien wie dem Stern von Betlehem. Im Gegensatz zu ihrem dunklen und zerlumpten Äußeren, erweisen sie sich durch ihre Handlungen als Könige. Am Ende werden sie selbst vom Kind erlöst, nach dessen Schreien sie „die Füße aufhoben und zur Tür schlichen“. Im Schrei des Kindes liege das Leben. Große schloss mit dem Urteil: „Die Kurzgeschichte ist eine säkularisierte, in die Nachkriegszeit verlegte, moderne Weihnachtsgeschichte.“

Auch für Kåre Eirek Gullvåg entschlüsselte sich die Struktur der Geschichte aus ihrem Ende. Mit der Erwähnung, dass die Geburt an Weihnachten stattgefunden habe, werde Licht auf den vorherigen Ablauf geworfen, die Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede zur biblischen Weihnachtsgeschichte treten zutage. Die Funktion des Lichts markiere die zentralen Stellen der Geschichte. Aus ihnen legte Gullvåg eine Einteilung der Handlung fest:

Am Ende habe das Licht des Kindes die Menschen erhellt, wobei diese Erhellung innerlich zu verstehen sei. Der Mensch finde Hoffnung in der Nächstenliebe, werde zum Mitmenschen. Auch der Zorn des Vaters wolle sich nicht länger in Gewalt Bahn brechen. Der Vater habe sein Verhältnis zum Leben gewandelt.

Manfred Durzak verglich Die drei dunklen Könige mit der berühmten Vorlage The Gift of the Magi, einer Short Story von O. Henry. In beiden Geschichten werde die materielle Notsituation eines Paares vor dem zeitgeschichtlichen Hintergrund – bei O. Henry die Große Depression – an einem Weihnachtsabend abgehandelt. Borcherts Geschichte sei allerdings wesentlich straffer, nüchterner und zugespitzter erzählt als jene von O. Henry. Gleichzeitig sei sie in der Vermittlung des Ethos zurückhaltender. Beide Geschichten richteten sich an ein unterschiedliches Publikum: O. Henry schreibe für Zeitschriften und den Konsum einer breiten Leserschaft, während für Borchert der Adressat seiner Texte nicht ein Unterhaltung Suchender sei, sondern der Mitbetroffene, der Schicksalsgenosse.

Die Kurzgeschichte Die drei dunklen Könige wurde erstmals am 24. Dezember 1946, mitten im Hungerwinter 1946/47, in der Hamburger Freien Presse veröffentlicht. Im folgenden Jahr wurde sie in Wolfgang Borcherts zweite Prosasammlung An diesem Dienstag aufgenommen, die im November 1947 beim Rowohlt Verlag erschien. Die drei dunklen Könige gehört zu den bekanntesten Kurzgeschichten des Autors, gilt als typisches Beispiel der Trümmerliteratur nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg und wurde vielfach in Lesebüchern abgedruckt sowie im Schulunterricht behandelt.

Kåre Eirek Gullvåg nannte Die drei dunklen Könige die „vielleicht schönste Geschichte Borcherts“. Anna-Maria Darboven sprach von einer „seltsam ergreifenden Weihnachtsgeschichte“. Hermann Wiegmann betonte „die behutsam angesetzte Symbolik“ am Ende der Kurzgeschichte, in der eine „Handvoll Licht […] so etwas wie Hoffnung in absoluter Trostlosigkeit vermitteln kann“.

Sonderschullehrer

Als Sonderschullehrerin bzw. -lehrer oder Förderschullehrerin bzw. -lehrer wird eine Lehrkraft bezeichnet, die an einer staatlichen oder privaten Sonderschule oder Förderschule auf der Grundlage der Sonderpädagogik unterrichtet. Mittlerweile unterrichten auch immer mehr Sonderschullehrer in sogenannten „integrativen” oder Inklusions-, Kooperations- oder Aussen-Klassen“, dort sind sie vor allem für die Kinder mit einem festgestellten „sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf“ zuständig. Vereinzelt arbeiten Sonderschullehrer auch im außerschulischen Bereich auf Stellen von Diplom-Sonderpädagogen.

Da in Deutschland das Bildungswesen in der Verantwortung der Länder liegt, werden in verschiedenen Bundesländern unterschiedliche Bezeichnungen gebraucht.

Die Ausbildung des Sonderschullehrers umfasst in Deutschland zwei Ausbildungsphasen: Grundlage bildet ein Studium für Lehramt an Sonderschulen an einer Universität oder Pädagogischen Hochschule (nur in Baden-Württemberg). Es umfasst allgemeine Erziehungswissenschaften sowie sonderpädagogische und fachdidaktische Inhalte und schließt mit dem ersten Staatsexamen ab. Die sonderpädagogischen Inhalte werden in zwei Fachrichtungen (in Bayern ist nur eine Fachrichtung vorgeschrieben) belegt, die den Sonderschultypen entsprechen.

Zur Wahl stehen

Die Regelstudienzeit umfasst neun, in Baden-Württemberg acht Semester; das darauf folgende Referendariat dauert abhängig vom Bundesland 18 oder 24 Monate und wird an einer oder zwei Sonderschulen oder auch in einer integrativen/inklusiven Schule absolviert. Es endet mit dem zweiten Staatsexamen.

Zur Aufgabe des Sonderschullehrers gehört die Vorbereitung und Durchführung des Unterrichts, die Erstellung von sonderpädagogischen Gutachten, die Teilnahme an Konferenzen usw. Die tatsächlichen Aufgaben unterscheiden sich stark nach dem Sonderschultyp, an dem der Sonderschullehrer arbeitet. Während er an einer Schule für Kinder mit Lernbehinderung oder Sprachbehinderung oft alleine eine Klasse unterrichtet, wird an Schulen für Kinder mit Körperbehinderung oder geistiger Behinderung oft ein Lehrerteam gebildet, das eine Klasse betreut.

Mittlerweile hat die Veränderung der aktuellen didaktischen Konzepte im Sonderschulbereich von einer speziell an der Schädigung ausgerichteten Pädagogik hin zu einer lern- und entwicklungspsychologischen Sicht auch die Veränderung des Berufsbildes mitsichgebracht. So werden Sonderschullehrer auch an ambulanten Förderzentren (BFZ) und im Gemeinsamen Unterricht eingesetzt.

Dale Steyn

Dale Willem Steyn (/ˈsteɪn/; born 27 June 1983) is a South African cricketer who plays in Tests, T20 Internationals and One Day International cricket for South Africa. Steyn plays domestic cricket in South Africa for Cape Cobras. He is a right-arm fast bowler, and bowls at speeds of around 145–150 km/h (his fastest being recorded at 156.2 km/h during the 2010 IPL, Bangalore Royal Challengers against Kolkata Knight Riders). His fastest ball in international cricket was clocked at 155.7 km/h (96.8 mph) against New Zealand, making him tied for 4th fastest active bowler with Lasith Malinga as of 3 January 2015. Steyn held the record for the fastest South African to reach 100 wickets in Test Match cricket, a feat he achieved on 2 March 2008.

Steyn is widely regarded as the best fast bowler of his generation. He currently has the best bowling strike rate of all time in Test match cricket (amongst bowlers who have bowled a minimum of 10,000 deliveries). Dale Steyn achieved a tally of 78 wickets at an average of 16.24 in Season 2007/08 and was subsequently rewarded with the prestigious ICC 2008 Test Cricketer of the Year Award. He was named one of the Wisden cricketers of the year in 2013. He was named Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World for the year 2013 in 2014 Wisden Cricketers‘ Almanack.

He dominated the number one spot in the ICC test rankings for a record 263 weeks between 2008 and 2014. He is currently back to being the No.1 Test bowler in the world, with 878 points on 31st August 2016 after losing the top-spot to Ravichandran Ashwin back in December 2015 following his important early work with pace bowling expert, Ian Pont. In October 2012, alongside Philander and Morne Morkel, Steyn was part of a South African pace attack bowling coach and former test cricketer Allan Donald called the best the country had ever produced. Steyn played a cameo as himself in the 2014 Hollywood film Blended.

Dale Steyn grew up in the small town of Phalaborwa on the border of the world-famous wildlife haven, the Kruger National Park. Active and energetic, Steyn was naturally drawn to sports. His love of being outdoors led him also to more solitary activities such as bass fishing and skateboarding. Steyn began playing cricket when he was around 11 years old and he received a Hansie Cronje cricket set as a Christmas gift. Family games on the lawn soon led to a place in the school cricket team. During his high school years at Merensky High School in the town of Tzaneen, Steyn had exceptional pace and a raw talent, but a career in cricket didn’t seem possible. “When you live in a small town and there is just a handful of players, it doesn’t really count that you may be the cream of the crop,” Steyn comments “People might say you’re destined for great things. But when you’re in a small town, what are the chances?”

Steyn made his first-class debut for Northerns (subsequently merged with Easterns to form the Titans) on 17 October 2003. He only played two first-class games and made little impact in his first season, but a series of strong performances in the initial part of the 2004/2005 season saw him called up to the Test squad to play England. He went back to playing for the Titans after failing to impress in his first three Tests.

Steyn went to England in 2005 to play for Essex, appearing in seven matches between May and June. He failed to make a big impact in his initial outing in County Championship cricket, taking 14 wickets at 59.85. Following his work at Essex with world expert bowling coach Ian Pont Steyn returned to domestic cricket in South Africa, where he bowled excellently for the Titans through the 2005/2006 season which earned him a recall to the Test squad to face New Zealand.

Steyn seized the opportunity to cement his place in the South Africa Test team, and as a result of becoming a regular selection for the national team, he has subsequently played little domestic cricket in South Africa during the last three seasons, appearing for the Titans in just three SuperSport Series matches.

He had a second stint in England, playing for Warwickshire in the first half of the 2007 English season. This time around he had more success, claiming 23 County Championship wickets in seven matches at an average of 25.86. He also played well in the Friends Provident Trophy, a 50-over tournament, finishing as the leading wicket-taker for Warwickshire. He has since become a regular in the South African One Day International team.

Dale Steyn signed to play in the Indian Premier League in 2008, playing for the Royal Challengers Bangalore. He earned US$325,000 for his appearance in the tournament. For IPL 2011 he was bought by Deccan Chargers for $1.2 million.

Dale Steyn made his debut for South Africa on 17 December 2004 in the first Test of England’s tour. His first victim in Test cricket was Marcus Trescothick whom he bowled with a fast in-swinging delivery. However, his overall performance was underwhelming, he took eight wickets at an average of 52.00 and he was dropped after bowling poorly in England’s second innings of the fourth Test in January 2005, bowling eight no balls in nine overs which went for 47 runs. England won the match by 77 runs.

Later that year, Steyn was picked in the squad for the African XI in the Afro-Asia Cup of 2005/06, and he made his One Day International debut on 17 August 2005. The African XI won the match, with Steyn bowling last batsman Ashish Nehra to seal victory by two runs. Steyn made his One Day International debut for South Africa on 20 January 2006 in a match against Australia at Melbourne, a match which was part of the 2005-06 VB Series. Steyn did not bowl particularly well and after another below par performance against Sri Lanka he dropped out of consideration for the South African ODI team.

Following a strong season playing domestic cricket for the Titans, Steyn was recalled to the Test side to play New Zealand in April 2006. He responded to his opportunity with his first five-wicket haul in the first Test at Centurion, ripping through the New Zealand batting lineup along with Makhaya Ntini as New Zealand crumbled to 120 all out, chasing 248 to win. He finished the three Test series with 16 wickets at 26.00 and made a fine impression throughout.

Steyn was included in the Test team to play Sri Lanka away in a two match series in July and August 2006. In his first overseas Test, at the Sinhalese Sports Club Ground, Colombo, he took 3 for 129 as Sri Lanka piled up 756–5, with Kumar Sangakkara and Mahela Jayawardene putting together the highest Test match partnership ever (624 runs). South Africa slumped to defeat by an innings and 153 runs. In the second Test, at the Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu Stadium, Colombo, Steyn took his second five-wicket haul in Tests during Sri Lanka’s first innings, but went wicketless in their seconds innings as Sri Lanka sealed a 2–0 series victory by a single wicket. Steyn finished the series with eight wickets at an average of 36.50.

Steyn his Test place for the three match home series against India. He picked up an injury whilst bowling early in India’s first innings in the first Test at Johannesburg which prevented him from taking much further part in the game and also ruled him out of the second Test. He returned to play in the deciding third Test at Cape Town and bowled well, taking six wickets for 88 runs in the match as South Africa clinched the match and the series. He finished the series with six wickets at an average of 19.00.

Despite his strong performance on his return to the team in the third Test against India, Steyn missed out on a place in the first two Tests against Pakistan, with the selectors opting to play a four-man attack featuring full-time spinner Paul Harris. He returned in the third Test, at Cape Town, when the selectors decided to rest André Nel and Shaun Pollock in preparation for the imminent 2007 Cricket World Cup. He took four wickets in the match for 87 runs as South Africa won the match by 5 wickets and took the series 2–1. As this was his only match, his average for the series was 21.75.

Steyn was recalled to the South African ODI squad in June 2007 and played in three matches between June and August, against Ireland, India and Zimbabwe. He had mixed success in these three matches, taking wickets but proving expensive.

Steyn was picked for the Test squad to tour Pakistan in October, and played in both Tests. In the first Test at Karachi, during Pakistan’s second innings, he picked up his third Test five-wicket haul as Pakistan were bowled out for 263 chasing 424 to win. He had an unremarkable second Test, with the match petering out to a draw, handing South Africa the series 1–0, and finished the series with nine wickets at 24.66.

Steyn was by now an established member of the Test team, and he produced his finest series performance to date in the two Test matches against New Zealand in November. In the first Test at Johannesburg he collected his fourth and fifth five-wicket hauls (5/35 and 5/59) and his first ten-wicket match as New Zealand were thrashed by 358 runs, South Africa’s biggest victory margin in terms of runs to date. Steyn was also awarded his first Test Man-of-the-Match award. This devastating form continued into the second Test at Centurion where he picked up 4/42 in the first innings and his sixth five-wicket haul (6/49) to help South Africa to victory by an innings and 59 runs. His second ten-wicket match earned him his second Man-of-the-Match award in a row and his series performance of 20 wickets at an average of 9.20 won him his first Man-of-the-Series award. On the back of his performance, he broke into the top five of the ICC rankings for Test bowlers for the first time in his career.

He made his Twenty20 International debut on 23 November 2007 in the one-off game against New Zealand, taking the wicket of Scott Styris and only giving up 17 runs from his four overs. He also featured in the third One Day International at Cape Town, where he had partial success, taking the wickets of the New Zealand openers, Brendon McCullum and Lou Vincent, but going for 50 runs from nine overs.

Steyn’s next international appearance was in the first Twenty20 International against the West Indies. He took the exceptional figures of 4/9 in three overs, with all four wickets being picture perfect yorkers, but was unable to stop the West Indies chasing down the target of 59 runs in a match reduced to 13 overs by rain.

Steyn’s form continued into the Test series. He had a fairly indifferent match in the first Test at Port Elizabeth, taking 5/188 in the match as the West Indies scored their first away victory in Test matches for two and a half years, although he did hit his highest Test match score to date, 33 not out, in South Africa’s second innings. He picked up figures of 4/60 and 4/44 in the second Test at Cape Town as South Africa leveled the series and once again proved his worth in the deciding third Test at Durban by taking 1/18 and 6/72, his seventh five-wicket haul, as the West Indies were thrashed by an innings and 100 runs. His 20 wickets at 19.10. earned him his second consecutive Man-of-the-Series award.

He played in the first three matches of the One Day International series, but could not match his Test success and was briefly dropped after failing to take a wicket and going for 62 runs in his ten overs during the third match at Port Elizabeth He was recalled for the fifth match at Johannesburg but struggled again, taking one wicket but going for 78 runs from ten overs.

In the first Test of the two match series against Bangladesh, at Dhaka, Steyn helped South Africa avoid an embarrassing defeat. Bangladesh were bowled out for 192 in their first innings, with Steyn claiming 3/27, but then South Africa collapsed to 170 all out, handing the hosts a shock 22 run lead. However Steyn(4/48) then combined with Jacques Kallis (5/30) to restrict Bangladesh to 182 all out and South Africa were able to complete a five wicket victory on the fourth day of the match. South Africa won the second Test at Chittagong comprehensively (by an innings and 205 runs) and Steyn returned figures of 4/66 and 3/35 giving him 14 wickets in the series at an average of 12.57 which won him his third consecutive Man-of-the-Series award. When Steyn dismissed Junaid Siddique in Bangladesh’s first innings (his 20th match), he claimed the record for the fastest South African to reach 100 wickets in Tests, beating Hugh Tayfield’s record of 21 matches. He holds the record amongst all players who are currently playing Test cricket.

Steyn featured in the final One Day International of the three match series, going wicketless but only giving away 19 runs in 8 overs.

Coming into the three Test series against India predictions about how Steyn would fare were mixed, with some commentators identifying him a crucial part of a South African team which could pose a serious challenge to India, whilst others predicted he might struggle playing against a strong batting lineup on lifeless subcontinent pitches.

The first Test at Chennai turned out to be a very high scoring affair, with South Africa batting first and making 540, then India responding strongly, led by Virender Sehwag who scored 319 from 304 balls, to reach 468/1 by the end of the third day. On the fourth day Steyn helped to restrict India’s lead to 87 runs by dismissing MS Dhoni with a bouncer then blasting through the lower order, taking three wickets in two overs for the cost of two runs, all bowled with reverse swinging deliveries. He finished the innings, and the match which petered out into a tame draw, with four wickets for 103 runs. On the morning of the second Test at Ahmedabad, South Africa demolished the much vaunted Indian batting line within twenty overs, for the meagre total of 76 runs. Steyn was the pick of the bowlers taking five wickets for 23 runs, dismissing Sehwag and Rahul Dravid then mopping up the last three batsmen for the cost of 11 runs. In the second innings he added a further three wickets to his match tally, finishing the game with eight wickets for 114 runs, as South Africa completed a crushing victory by an innings and 90 runs. The final Test at Kanpur saw Steyn pick up three first innings wickets which took him to 15 wickets in the series at an average of 20.20. As a result of this, the cumulation of an outstanding 2007/08 season in which he took 75 wickets in 11 matches, Steyn moved up to joint first place (alongside Muttiah Muralitharan) in the ICC Test match bowling rankings.

In the 2nd Test match in a 3 match series, Steyn was involved in a record 9th wicket partnership of 180 with J.P. Duminy. Steyn recorded a score of 76 (191 deliveries) in an innings that helped South Africa recover from 6–141 to post a score of 459. Steyn also starred in the first innings with figures of 5–87 (29.0 overs). In the second innings Steyn returned figures of 5–67 (20.2 overs) and helped South Africa to restrict the Australians to 247 giving the hosts a lead of 183. Steyn now had match figures of 10–154. This is the third time that he has taken 10 wickets in a match in his test career. South Africa duly completed the chase with nine wickets in hand, giving them a 2–0 series lead and their first ever Test series win in Australia. It was also Australia’s first home series defeat in 16 years. Steyn was named man of the match for this performance. Dale made a rearguard effort in attempting to prevent an Australian victory in the 3rd Test in Sydney frustrating the hosts with 28 runs in 65 balls in a 50 run partnership from 105 balls with Makhaya Ntini in order to try to secure the draw. However, when he was out with 50 balls to go, injured captain Graeme Smith came in with a broken hand in an attempt to hold out. Smith was eventually bowled out by Mitchell Johnson with ten balls to go.

In the first test against the Windies in the 2010 series, South Africa convincingly beat them, with Steyn take his 200th wicket, Sulimenn Benn, clean bowled (off stump). This was also the wicket that brought Steyn his 14th five – for, a superb achievement considering Steyn’s modest record of only 38 tests.

Dale Steyn got career best ODI figures of 5 wickets for 50 runs against India in Nagpur during the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup. India had a good start to their batting innings but could not maintain their momentum, in the process losing their final 9 wickets for just 29 runs. Steyn played a vital role in the derailment of a strong Indian batting line-up.

Dale Steyn was one of the players to go for over a million dollars in the auction for the fourth edition of the Indian Premier League. He was bought by the Deccan Chargers for $1.2 million.

He was awarded the man of the match against Mumbai Indians though Deccan Chargers lost the match.

Steyn is an aggressive out-and-out fast bowler capable of bowling at speeds in excess of 150 km/h. He is capable of generating considerable swing and is usually chosen to bowl with the new ball to maximize these attributes. He was a generally aggressive bowler and had capability to even get the ball to do a lot more than it should do. He bowls at mid 140 -150 but likes to bowl at mid 130 at general conditions He has also demonstrated the ability to reverse swing the older ball in a Test match against India in Nagpur in 2010, which South Africa won by an innings of six runs. Steyn is an extremely competitive cricketer and often celebrates vigorously after taking a wicket. He has stated that he „love(s) the buzz from bowling fast“ and that he „want(s) to be the quickest in the world“.

Steyn is usually considered a tail-ender when batting and usually bats at number nine. However, he is a capable hitter of the ball and can also occupy the crease if required.

During the 2010 Champions League Twenty20, Steyn injured his head and back after backpedalling and falling over while taking the catch of Chennai Super Kings‘ Mike Hussey. He was unable to continue.

In August 2009, Steyn was asked to explain elevated morphine levels in his system following a random drug test in that season’s Indian Premier League. After explaining he had been taking Myprodol ® as treatment for migraine headaches, he was cleared of any doping offence.

Dale Steyn made a cameo appearance as „some guy named Dale“ in the movie, Blended, featuring Adam Sandler and Drew Barrymore. He plays himself.

Players not selected for most recent ODI series:

Morchella rufobrunnea

cap is conical

spore print is cream

Morchella rufobrunnea, commonly known as the blushing morel, is a species of ascomycete fungus in the family Morchellaceae. A choice edible species, the fungus was originally described as new to science in 1998 by mycologists Gastón Guzmán and Fidel Tapia from collections made in Veracruz, Mexico. Its distribution was later revealed to be far more widespread after several DNA studies suggested that it is common in the West Coast of the United States, Israel, Australia, and Cyprus.

M. rufobrunnea grows in disturbed soil or in woodchips used in landscaping, suggesting a saprophytic mode of nutrition. Reports from the Mediterranean under olive trees (Olea europaea), however, suggest the fungus may also be able to form facultative tree associations. Young fruit bodies have conical, grayish caps covered with pale ridges and dark pits; mature specimens are yellowish to ochraceous-buff. The surface of the fruit body often bruises brownish orange to pinkish where it has been touched, a characteristic for which the fungus is named. Mature fruit bodies grow to a height of 9.0–15.5 cm (3.5–6.1 in). M. rufobrunnea differs from other Morchella species by its urban or suburban habitat preferences, in the color and form of the fruit body, the lack of a sinus at the attachment of the cap with the stipe, the length of the pits on the surface, and the bruising reaction. A process to cultivate morels now known to be M. rufobrunnea was described and patented in the 1980s.

The first scientifically described specimens of Morchella rufobrunnea were collected in June 1996 from the Ecological Institute of Xalapa and other regions in the southern Mexican municipality of Xalapa, which are characterized by a subtropical climate. The type locality is a mesophytic forest containing oak, sweetgum, Clethra and alder at an altitude of 1,350 m (4,430 ft). In a 2008 study, Michael Kuo determined that the „winter fruiting yellow morel“—erroneously referred to as Morchella deliciosa—found in landscaping sites in the western United States was the same species as M. rufobrunnea. According to Kuo, David Arora depicts this species in his popular 1986 work Mushrooms Demystified, describing it as a „coastal Californian form of Morchella deliciosa growing in gardens and other suburban habitats“. Kuo suggests that M. rufobrunnea is the correct name for the M. deliciosa used by western American authors. Other North American morels formerly classified as deliciosa have since been recategorized into two distinct species, Morchella diminutiva and M. sceptriformis (=M. virginiana).

Molecular analysis of nucleic acid sequences from the internal transcribed spacer and elongation factor EF-1α regions suggests that the genus Morchella can be divided into three lineages. M. rufobrunnea belongs to a lineage that is basal to the esculenta clade („yellow morels“), and the elata clade („black morels“). This phylogenetic placement implies that it has existed in its current form since the Cretaceous era (roughly 145 to 66 million years ago), and all known morel species evolved from a similar ancestor. M. rufobrunnea is genetically closer to the yellow morels than the black morels. M. anatolica, described from Turkey in 2012, is a closely related sister species.

The specific epithet rufobrunnea derives from the Latin roots ruf- (rufuous, reddish) and brunne- (brown). Vernacular names used for the fungus include „western white morel“, „blushing morel“, and—accounting for the existence of subtropical species in the „blushing clade“—“red-brown blushing morel“.

Fruit bodies of M. rufobrunnea can reach 6.0–21.0 cm (2.4–8.3 in) tall, although most are typically found in a narrower range, 9.0–15.5 cm (3.5–6.1 in). The conical to roughly cylindrical hymenophore (cap) is typically 6.0–8.5 cm (2.4–3.3 in) high by 3.0–4.5 cm (1.2–1.8 in) wide. Its surface is covered with longitudinal anastomosed ridges and crosswise veins that form broad, angular, elongated pits. Young fruit bodies are typically dark grey with sharply contrasting beige or buff ridges, while mature specimens fade to ochraceous-buff. The cylindrical stipe is often strongly wrinkled, enlarged at the base and measures 30–70 cm (12–28 in) by 1–2.5 cm (0.4–1.0 in) thick. It is typically covered with a dark brown to greyish pruinescence, often fading at maturity, a useful character to discriminate it from similar species, such as M. tridentina or M. sceptriformis. The stipe and hymenophore often exhibit ochraceous, orange or reddish stains, although this feature is neither constant nor exclusive to M. rufobrunnea and can be seen in a number of Morchella species, such as Morchella tridentina (=Morchella frustrata), M. esculenta, M. guatemalensis, the recently described M. fluvialis (Clowez et al. 2014), and most likely M. anatolica.

In deposit, the spores are pale orange to yellowish orange. Ascospores are egg-shaped, measuring 20–24 by 14–16 µm when mature, but smaller (14.5–19 by 9–10 µm) in immature fruit bodies. They are thin-walled, hyaline (translucent), and inamyloid. The cylindrical asci (spore-bearing cells) are 300–360 by 16–20 µm with walls up to 1.5 µm thick. Paraphyses measure 90–184 by 10–18.5 µm (6–9 µm thick if immature); they are hyaline, have a septum at the base, and comprise either one or two cells. The flesh is made of thin-walled, hyaline hyphae measuring 3–9 µm wide.

Morchella rubobrunnea is an edible fungus; it has been described variously as „one of the tastiest members of the morel family“, and alternately as „bland in comparison to other morel species“. Individual specimens over 1 pound (0.45 kg) have been reported.

Morchella tridentina (=Morchella frustrata) is also rufescent and very similar to M. rufobrunnea. It is found in mountainous forests and maquis and forms a marked sinus at the attachment of the cap with the stem, which is pure white. At maturity, it develops more or less parallel, ladderlike interconnecting ridges. Microscopically, it often has moniliform paraphyses with septa extending in the upper half and has more regularly cylindrical or clavate ‚hairs‘ on the stem, up to 100 μm long. M. guatemalensis, found in Central America, has a color ranging from yellow to yellowish-orange, but never grey, and it has a more distinct reddish to wine red bruising reaction. Microscopically, it has smaller paraphyses, measuring 56–103 by 6.5–13 µm. The New Guinean species M. rigidoides has smaller fruit bodies that are pale ochre to yellow, without any grey. Its pits are less elongated than those of M. rufobrunnea, and it has wider paraphyses, up to 30 µm.

Morchella americana (=M. esculentoides), is widely distributed in North America, north of Mexico and has similar colours to mature fruit bodies of M. rufobrunnea, but lacks the bruising reaction. M. diminutiva, found in hardwood forests of eastern North America, has a smaller fruit body than M. rufobrunnea, up to 9.4 cm (3.7 in) tall and up to 2.7 cm (1.1 in) wide at its widest point. Morchella sceptriformis (=Morchella virginiana) is found in riparian and upland ecosystems from Virginia to northern Mississippi, usually in association with the American tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera).

A predominantly saprophytic species, Morchella rufobrunnea fruit bodies grow singly or in clusters in disturbed soil or woodchips used in landscaping. Large numbers can appear the year after wood mulch has been spread on the ground. Typical disturbed habitats include fire pits, near compost piles, logging roads, and dirt basements. Fruiting usually occurs in the spring, although fruit bodies can be found in these habitats most of the year. Other preferred habitats include steep slopes and plateaus, and old-growth conifer forests. In Cyprus, the fungus is frequently reported from coastal, urban and suburban areas under olive trees (Olea europaea).

Morchella rufobrunnea ranges from Mexico through California and Oregon in the United States. It has also been introduced to central Michigan from California. It is one of seven Morchella species that have been recorded in Mexico. In 2009, Israeli researchers used molecular genetics to confirm the identity of the species in northern Israel, where it was found growing in gravelly disturbed soil near a newly paved path at the edge of a grove. This was the first documented appearance of the fungus outside the American continent. Unlike North American populations that typically fruit for only a few weeks in spring, the Israeli populations have a long-season ecotype, fruiting from early November to late May (winter and spring). This period corresponds to the rainy season in Israel (October to May), with low to moderate temperatures ranging from 15–28 °C (59–82 °F) during the day and 5–15 °C (41–59 °F) at night.

Morchella rufobrunnea is the morel that is cultivated commercially per US patents 4594809 and 4757640. This process was developed in 1982 by Ronald Ower with what he thought was Morchella esculenta; M. rufobrunnea had not yet been described. The cultivation protocol consists of preparing a spawn culture that is mixed with nutrient-poor soil. This mixture is laid on nutrient-rich soil and kept sufficiently moist until fruiting. In the nutrient-poor substrate, the fungus forms sclerotia—hardened masses of mycelia that serve as food reserves. Under appropriate environmental conditions, these sclerotia grow into morels.

The fruit bodies of Morchella rufobrunnea have been cultivated under controlled conditions in laboratory-scale experiments. Primordia, which are tiny nodules from which fruit bodies develop, appeared two to four weeks after the first watering of pre-grown sclerotia incubated at a temperature of 16 to 22 °C (61 to 72 °F) and 90% humidity. Mature fruit bodies grew to 7 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in) long.

The early stages of fruit body development can be divided into four discrete stages. In the first, disk-shaped knots measuring 0.5–1.5 mm appear on the surface of the substrate. As the knot expands in size, a primordial stipe emerges from its center. The stipe lengthens, orients upward, and two types of hyphal elements develop: long, straight and smooth basal hairy hyphae and short stipe hyphae, some of which are inflated and project out of a cohesive layer of tightly packed hyphal elements. In the final stage, which occurs when the stipe is 2–3 mm long, immature caps appear that have ridges and pits with distinct paraphyses. Extracellular mucilage that covers the ridge layer imparts shape and rigidity to the tissue and probably protects it against dehydration.

State Herbarium of South Australia

The State Herbarium of South Australia (sometimes called the South Australian Herbarium) is located in Adelaide, South Australia. It is one of several State and Commonwealth herbaria in Australia. The Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources is the state agency which is responsible for the Herbarium, but the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium (established by an Act of Parliament, most recently the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium Act 1978) is charged with its establishment and maintenance.

In 1954 the State Herbarium of South Australia was founded as part of the Adelaide Botanic Garden. The first flora collection of the state was produced by Richard Schomburgk (1811-1891) in 1875.

The State Herbarium’s collections include collections of Ralph Tate, John McConnell Black (via the South Australian Museum), the moss herbarium of Professor David Guthrie Catcheside (1907-1994), and the collections of the Field Naturalists‘ Society of South Australia.

Since 2000 the Herbarium has been located in the historic Tram Barn A building adjacent to the Adelaide Botanic Garden’s Bicentennial Conservatory on Hackney Road, Adelaide.

In late 2011 the Herbarium was due to list its one millionth specimen, and is currently producing an on-line version of the Flora of South Australia, 5th edition.

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Centrum Vlaamse Architectuurarchieven

Het Centrum Vlaamse Architectuurarchieven of kortweg CVAa is een Vlaams archief- en documentatiecentrum dat advies geeft bij het beheren van privaatrechtelijke archieven rond architectuur en design.

Dit centrum vloeit voort uit het Vlaams Archiefdecreet van 2003 waarbij de Vlaamse overheid vijf culturele thema’s toekende aan archief- en documentatiecentra die een rol wilden opnemen in het beter beheer van privaatrechtelijke archieven. De 5 thema’s zijn: architectuur, literatuur, muziek, religie en deportatie en verzet. Het CVAa nam architectuur voor zijn rekening.

Ondertussen bouwt het centrum onder de koepel van het Vlaams Architectuurinstituut of VAi een werking uit rond private architectuurarchieven in Vlaanderen. Het centrum geeft advies bij het opsporen, het beheren en ontsluiten van archieven. Het werkt aan een Vlaamse architectuurarchief door te bemiddelen bij geschikte bewaarinstellingen en door het inventariseren van concreet materiaal.

In de praktijk maakt men geen onderscheid tussen archieven van architecten en designers omdat de scheidingslijn tussen beide vaag is.